Because of this, it’s standard to replace everbearers every two to three years.
Strawberries fall under one of three types: June-bearing, everbearing, or day neutral.
If this is the route you take, sow seeds directly in the garden in early spring. Be prepared to wait for up to month to see any signs of germination.
It’s also important to thoroughly weed the area ahead of time, and keep it weed free throughout the growing season. Weeds can easily outcompete the shallow roots of strawberries for water and nutrients.
Are you trying to find the best type for your location? If so, check out our 35 of the Best Strawberry Varieties for Home Gardeners to find the right cultivar for your berry patch.
The Three Types
Plants will survive almost effortlessly, but getting a bountiful harvest takes a bit of work.
Full sun and well-draining soil go a long way to reduce the occurrence of diseases. Keep rows narrow and weed free to improve air circulation.
Aphids: various species of aphids on strawbery (figure 38, n, o, p, q), including Chaetosiphon fragaefolii, Aphis gossypii, Macrosiphum euphorbiae and Myzus persicae. Regardind to identification they are 1) small (2 mm long) , soft bodied, slow moving; 2) green, yellowish green, pink or gray in colour and variable in shape; 3) Cornicles resemble tailpipes at the base of the abdomen; 4) Adults may or may not have wings; 5) Nymphs resemble the wingless adults; 6) Symptoms include stunted and malformed plants; 7) Black sooty mould forms on the aphids secretions known as honeydew, this can coat leaves and developing fruit; 8) Most damage caused by the transmission of viruses. They are often confused With potato leafhopper (Empoasca fabae Harris, 1841) and tarnished plant bug (Lygus lineolaris Palisot de Beauvois, 1818). About the activity they are generally, aphids overwinter as eggs. Active stages present from early spring through to late summer. Winged forms migrate away from heavy infestations to start new colonies. This aphids can be found on new shoots, the undersides of leaves and on buds while they are still in the crown. Cast skins from previous moults may be present on leaves after aphids have left. The honeydew can be attractive to ants.
Diffusion the strawberry in the world
The strawberry occupies, in the world, has a surface of 256 108 and from place to a production of 3,822,989 t. In Europe, the surface is about 177 378 and has the production of 1,449,385 t.
The cultivation of the strawberry is in the process of slow but progressive growth. Over a third of the area is concentrated in Eastern Europe, particularly in Poland (52,500 ha), Russia (38,000 ha) and Ukraine (11,200 ha). Significant investments are also recorded in the United States (22,000 ha), Germany (13,000 ha) and Turkey (10,000 ha).
The United States is the world’s largest producer with an offer that exceeds 1.1 million tons, accounting for 35% of global production. Follows the Russian Federation, the protagonist of a considerable expansion of its production potential, the past over the past decade from 120 to 324 thousand tons per year, surpassing even Spain. The latter is in third place with an offer that, after several years of growth in 2007 does not exceed 263,000 tonnes. There has been strong increases in production also in other Mediterranean countries, such as Turkey (239,000 t), Egypt (104,000 t) and Morocco (100,000 t). Italy follows them with an offer for some years now in sharp decline in 2007 did not exceed 57,000 t, surpassed even by Great Britain in the same year produced 66,000 tonnes of strawberries. Even before are the productions of South Korea (200,000 tonnes), Japan (193,000 t), Poland (168,000 t), Mexico (160,000 tonnes) and Germany (153,000 t).
In Italy, the total area of strawberry was in 2007 to 6,033 ha, with a total production of 165 202 t and a yield of 27.25 t / ha. In 2008 there was a total area of 3,693 ha, with a total production of 65,372 t and a yield of 17.70 t / ha. It can be noted as, in Italy, the surface and the production yield of this crop has almost halved.
In Europe the cultivation of the strawberry is in the process of stagnation. The result to be approximately 170,000 hectares, of which largely localized in Eastern European countries joined the EU. The offer European Union in 2007 has settled down to around 1.5 million tonnes.
Spain, with a production of about 270,000 t, although lower, is consolidating its position as the leading producer countries of Europe. Poland, second largest producer of strawberries, has greatly expanded the cultivation in the first half of the last decade, then return to previous levels. The average yields in Poland continue to be much lower than those of Western Europe and South America and did not seem to show any increase. The total production capacity of the country is very large (168,000 t), distributed over an area of over 50,000 hectares.
In Italy the investments were practically halved in little more than 10 years, rising from 7,500 to 3,700 ha. For a long time the Italian strawberry cultivation is plagued by several problems: the difficulty of finding skilled labor, often unfavorable climatic conditions for the cultivation, earnings are not always sufficient to cover the costs of production, campaigns decidedly disappointing because of the frequent market crashes. Similar situation is found in France, where it currently detects an area planted amounted to 3,800 ha. Important areas planted with strawberries in Germany (13,000 ha) and the UK (4,000 ha).
The strawberry is a triangular red fruit, characterized by small dots, which we all well know for its intense and delicious flavour.
Actually, the strawberry is defined fruit improperly, because the actual fruits are the small dots on the strawberry, improperly called seeds.
Its origins are not well-defined: some sources claim that the strawberry is native to Europe and in particular to the area of Alps, while others consider the strawberry native to Chile, from where a French officer, in the early Eighteenth century, imported the mother plants in Europe, where they were used to create the hybrid Fragaria x ananassa, to whom all the varieties of strawberry currently available belong. The strawberry is a member of the rose family, with the most common varieties being a hybrid of the wild Virginia strawberry (native to North America) and a Chilean variety.
However, it seems that strawberries were already present on the tables of ancient Rome: the fruit was eaten during the celebrations in honour of Adonis. The legend says that when Adonis died, Venus shed copious tears, which, arriving on the Earth, were transformed into small red hearts: the fragrant strawberries.
According to other popular legends , more recent, but anyway lost in the mists of time, the strawberry would be able to protect from the bites of vipers and snakes: to avoid the dangerous poison of these animals, it is said that the leaves of this small plant should be collected on St. John’s day. Therefore, people who collected the leaves on the 24 th of June, essicated them and then made a braided belt, would have been protected from any possible bite, often fatal, of vipers and snakes. These are of course popular beliefs of the Italian peasant tradition, however these legends contribute to make strawberries even more extraordinary among all the fruits on our table.
Until the Seventeenth century, in Europe, native wild species Fragaria vesca, Fragaria viridis, or Fragaria moschata and other varieties of strawberry, brought from North America (Fragaria virginiana) were cultivated: in particular, with the introduction of the American species, the plant of strawberries produced much more large fruits.
The plant produces succulent, red, conical fruit from tiny white flowers, and sends out runners to propagate.
Although the plants can last 5 to 6 years with careful cultivation, most farmers use them as an annual crop, replanting yearly. Crops take 8 to 14 months to mature. Strawberries are social plants, requiring both a male and female to produce fruit.
The word strawberry comes from the Old English streawberige , most likely because the plant sends out runners which could be likened to pieces of straw. Although they have been around for thousands of years, strawberries were not actively cultivated until the Renaissance period in Europe.
Strawberries are native to North America, and the Indians used them in many dishes. The first colonists in America shipped the native larger strawberry plants back to Europe as early as 1600. Another variety was also discovered in Central and South America, which the conquistadors called “futilla”. Early Americans did not bother cultivating strawberries, because they were abundant in the wilds.
Cultivation began in earnest in the early part of the 19th century, when strawberries with cream quickly became considered a luxurious dessert. New York became a strawberry hub with the advent of the railroad, shipping the crop in refrigerated railroad cars. Production spread to Arkansas, Louisiana, Florida and Tennessee. Now 75 percent of the North American crop is grown in California, and many areas have Strawberry Festivals, with the first one dating back to 1850.
Strawberry leafroller whose scientific name is (Choristoneura lafauryana (Ragonot, 1875). The taxonomy of Choristoneura lafauryana is Class Insecta C. Linnaeus, 1758; Subclass Dicondylia; Infraclass Pterygota; Metapterygota; Neoptera; Eumetabola; Holometabola; Superorder Panorpida; Amphiesmenoptera; Order Lepidoptera C. Linnaeus, 1758; Suborder Glossata Fabricius, 1775; Coelolepida Nielsen & Kristensen, 1996; Myoglossata Kristensen & Nielsen, 1981; Neolepidoptera Packard, 1895; Infraorder Heteroneura Tillyard, 1918; Eulepidoptera Kiriakoff, 1948; Ditrysia B�rner, 1925; Apoditrysia Minet, 1983; Superfamily Tortricoidea Latreille, 1802; Family Tortricidae Latreille, 1802; Subfamily Tortricinae; Genus Choristoneura Lederer, 1859; Species Choristoneura lafauryana (Ragonot, 1875). This is a species of moth that was found in Spain, Great Britain, the Netherlands, Belgium, France, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Romania and Russia. In the east, the range extends to China (Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning), Korea and Japan. The wingspan is 18–21 mm for males and 20–24 mm for females. Adults have been recorded on wing from July to August in western Europe (Figure 40, f). The larvae feed on Artemisia (including Artemisia montana), Cirsium, Lespedeza, Ribes, Myrica (including Myrica gale), Forsythia, Larix, Fragaria (including Fragaria x ananassa), Pyrus and Salix species, as well as Rhododendron tomentosa, Glycine max, Medicago sativa, Trifolium repens, Morella rubra, Boehmeria nivea, Malus pumila and Malus sylvestris. They live between leaves and shoots spun together with silk. Larva average length 25 mm; head pale yellowish brown mixed with brownish or yellowish green; region of stemmata black; body yellowish green with a darker green dorsal line; prothoracic plate and anal plate pale yellowish brown or dark green; pinacula paler than integument, rather inconspicuous. Anal fork well developed (Figure 40, h). Eggs are deposited in elongate batches of 70-100 eggs on the upper surface of the leaves of the food plant. They hatch in about 10 to 14 days. There are 2 generations per year. Adult strawberry leafroller is reddish brown with a distinctive yellow marking on the forewings, and a wingspan of about 12 mm (Figure 40, g). They emerge in April and May and deposit eggs (translucent) on the lower surface of the leaves.
In Minnesota, however, the strawberry leafroller is specific to strawberries, raspberries, and blackberries.
There is an other species of tortricids causing leaf-rolling in strawberry:
Ancylis comptana (Fr�lich, 1828) causing Strawberry leafroller or Comptan’s Ancylis Moth is a moth of the Tortricidae family. It is found from the United Kingdom and Scandinavia to northern Spain and Turkey, Asia Minor, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Russia, China, Mongolia, Korea and Japan. In North America, it is represented by ssp. fragariae. The wingspan is 11–14 mm. Adults are on wing from April to June and from mid July till September. There are two generations per year in Europe. In the northern United States, moths of the first generation fly from the end of March to April and those of the second in late May and June. Here, a third or sometimes even a fourth generation occurs, flying in August and from September to October. The larvae feed on Sanguisorba minor, Potentilla, Fragaria, Teucrium, Rosa, Dryas octopetala, Rubus idaeus, Rubus icaesius and Thymus. The larvae damage soft fruits, especially strawberry but also raspberry. The species has become an important pest of strawberries on some locations in the United States.
Leafrollers are seldom a pest on strawberries, and treatment is usually not necessary.
Plugs afford greater grower control of transplanting dates, provide mechanical transplanting opportunities, and allow improved water management for transplant establishment relative to fresh bare-root plants.
New uses for plugs have been identified in recent years, including earlier flowering and fruiting with conditioned plugs, and in glasshouse production. In time, labor issues and prevailing environmental concerns throughout the world may increase interest in strawberry plugs, but higher prevailing costs for this propagation method is limiting current plug usage to specialized niche applications.
The scientific community has an opportunity to improve industry adoption of plug plants by developing more cost-effective methods for producing large volumes of disease-free runner tips, and improve the evenness and growth of plug plants in the tray and thereby achieve more uniform growth and fruiting after transplanting. In the future, scientists may learn to inoculate strawberry plugs with various performance-enhancing agents and possibly reduce plug size for savings in media, plastic trays and greenhouse space. Exposing plugs to different natural environments for meristem conditioning effects can advance flowering and fruiting, but plug trays are bulky and expensive to move.
Researchers need to identify less expensive means to condition strawberry plugs, preferably on one site. Finally, well-coordinated efforts between horticulturists, engineers and industry, could lead to useful applications of robotics in strawberry runner-tip harvest, plug rooting, transplanting and conditioning.
Other interesting varieties of strawberry are represented in Figure 6 and Figure 7.
Field with material cold-storage
During the differentiation of floral and vegetative rest of the plant (December-January), will not be given nitrogen fertilizer. In the immediate vicinity of the bloom can be made fertilizer with a high phosphorus content, and only after fruit set can resume regular fertigation, with a ratio N / P2O5 / K2O that will be approximately 1 / 0.5 / 1.5. In the phase of maturation and subsequent collection scalar ratio most used is 1 / 1.5 / 3 (water-soluble fertilizers such as ternary securities suitable 8-12-24 and 12-16-32), in alternation to single injections of potassium nitrate (use with caution) and calcium nitrate, which is useful to the improvement of the “hardness” of the fruits in warmer weather.
The most important for strawberry are represented od spider mites of the genus Tetranychus Dufour, 1832. This genus is so framed taxonomically: Natura; Mundus Plinius; Naturalia; Biota; Domain Eukaryota Chatton, 1925; Unikonta; Opisthokonta Cavalier-Smith, 1987; Holozoa; Kingdom Animalia C. Linnaeus, 1758; Epitheliozoa Ax, 1996; Eumetazoa B�tschli, 1910; Bilateria Hatschek, 1888; Eubilateria Ax, 1987; Protostomia Grobben, 1908; Ecdysozoa A.M.A. Aguinaldo et a., 1997; Superphylum Panarthropoda; Phylum Arthropoda Latreille, 1829; Euarthropoda; Subphylum Arachnomorpha Heider, 1913; Infraphylum Cheliceriformes; Superclass Chelicerata ; Epiclass Euchelicerata Weygoldt & Paulus, 1979; Class Arachnida Cuvier, 1812; Micrura Hansen & S�rensen, 1904; Acaromorpha Dubinin, 1957; Subclass Acari Leach, 1817; Superorder Acariformes Zakhvatkin, 1952; Order Actinedida van der Hammen, 1968; Suborder Eleutherengona Oudemans, 1909; Section Raphignathae Superfamily Tetranychoidea Donnadieu, 1876; Family Tetranychidae Donnadieu, 1876; Subfamily Tetranychinae Donnadieu, 1876; Genus Tetranychus Dufour, 1832.
We describe some species of mites very harmful for strawberry (Figure 42):
Root weevil: there are several species of root weevils which feed on strawberries. The most common are the strawberry root weevil (Otiorhynchus ovatus Linnaeus, 1758), in Figure 38 a, and black vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus Fabricius, 1775), in Figure 38 b. They are Coleoptera, Curculionidae. Larvae are found in the soil around the plant or imbedded in the crown (Figure 38, d). They are cream-coloured, or pinkish-white, legless, with c-shaped bodies and brown heads (Figure 38, f). Mature larvae range in size depending on species, for then becoming pupae in the soil (Figure 38, g). Adults are black or brown beetles with a characteristic long, probing mouthpart called a snout. They feed on strawberry leaves causing characteristic c-shaped notches on the leaf edge (Figure 38, e). The injury alone is not serious, but it indicates a potential problem with the larval feeding next year. Often the damages of this pests are confused with white grubs, winter injury and root or crown disease. Root weevils overwinter as larvae in soil. Larvae feed extensively on plant roots in spring. Adults begin to emerge from the soil during harvest. Adults are in the field throughout and early fall July and early August. Peak emergence and egg laying by adults occurs in late July through mid August. Root damage is not usually evident until the next spring. Although there is only one generation a year, populations can build rapidly within two years of planting. Scout fields in spring through bloom for areas of stunted growth. Carefully dig up the roots of a plant about 15 cm into the soil and look for grubs. If grubs are found, control measures should be taken after harvest when adults emerge. In mid to late summer look every 1-2 weeks for leaf notching caused by adult feeding. Black vine weevil adults can cause extensive and obvious damage to leaves, especially in young plants (Figure 38, h). However, not all species of root weevils cause noticeable notching.